Theologising democracy in the context of Muhammadiyah’s ijtihād

Hasnan Bachtiar

Abstract


This article focuses to examine the process of Muhammadiyah’s ijtihād has evolved, specifically in constructing the notion of Negara Pancasila sebagai Dār al-‘Ahd wa al-Shahādah (the state of consensus and witness) and the arguments on which it is built. The scholarly issues that have been highlighted in this article are study on this specific discourse has not been done yet, the ijtihad in the field of Siyar (law of war and international relations in Islamic traditions) which has been elaborated with ideas of contemporary social sciences is very rare, and the discourse of Siyar has dominantly covered only the area of Middle East. Accordingly, this article confidently fulfils these gaps applying qualitative research method and analysis of social contextualisation. This article argues that the way of Muhammadiyah’s ijtihād in producing the idea of Indonesia as the state of consensus and witness is applying theologising democracy. It consists of trajectory in which Muhammadiyah has objectified Islam and substantialised it to enhance the meaning of democracy.


Keywords


Ijtihad; Siyar; Negara Pancasila; Dār al-‘ahd wa al-shahādah; Theologising democracy; Objectification of Islam; Substantialisation of Islam

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Interviews

An interview with a Muhammadiyah activist (who asked for anonymity), 30 August 2018.

An interview with Abd. Rochim Ghazali, the Executive Director of the Maarif Institute (2004-2005), and the Secretary of the Division of Politics and Public Policy of Muhammadiyah (Lembaga Hikmah dan Kebijakan Publik Muhammadiyah). 30 August 2018.

An interview with Abdul Munir Mulkhan, a leading intellectual within Muhammadiyah. 22 September 2018.

An interview with Azaki Khairuddin, the General Secretary of the Central Board of Muhammadiyah Student Association (Ikatan Pelajar Muhammadiyah, IPM), and a moderator of the group of Islam Berkemajuan. 28 August 2018.

An interview with Hajriyanto Thohari, one of the Chairmen of the Central Board of Muhammadiyah, and the Deputy of the Chairman of the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) from 2009 to 2014. 21 August 2018.

An interview with Mu’arif, a journalist of Suara Muhammadiyah, 20 August 2018.

An interview with Saad Ibrahim, the Chairman of Muhammadiyah Provincial Branch of the East Java, and also the Chairperson of the Commission in the Muktamar Muhammadiyah in Makassar in 2015. 23 August 2018.

An interview with Zuly Qodir, an activist of the Dakwah Division (Majelis Tabligh dan Dakwah Khusus) of the Central Board of Muhammadiyah. 30 August 2018.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v12i1.165-200

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