Misinterpretation of patience: an analytical study of nerimo concept within Indonesian Muslim society

Adang Kuswaya, Sukron Ma'mun

Abstract


This research aims to deeply explore the nerimo concept in Javanese Muslim society. Nerimo as the philosophy of Javanese culture is often associated with the concept of patience in Islamic doctrine. This research shows that there are a misconception understanding and practice among the Javanese Muslims regarding the concept of nerimo and patience. They tend to express nerimo and patience as a practice of passivity, static, and blind submission to all problems of life. This causes the values contained those concepts to be reduced and lose the spirit of liberation for the life of mankind. By employing a liberation hermeneutic approach and sociological analysis, this research concludes that the nerimo concept in Javanese Muslim could be reconstructed into a Javanese idea that implies human endurance in every period of life. The concepts of nerimo and patience alternately are a form of psychological, spiritual, and intellectual awareness that every life has a periodic motion where every person will surely experience life fluctuations. Then the principle of patience and nerimo become a catalyst for the position of life to turn it back into motion. Patience and nerimo, therefore, are not placed as results but are situated as the power of a continuity life process which can drive people surpassing one stage of their lives.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi konsep nerimo dalam masyarakat Muslim Jawa. Nerimo sebagai filosofi budaya Jawa sering dikaitkan dengan konsep kesabaran dalam doktrin Islam. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada pemahaman dan praktik miskonsepsi di kalangan Muslim Jawa tentang konsep nerimo dan kesabaran. Mereka cenderung mengekspresikan nerimo dan kesabaran sebagai praktik kepasifan, statis, dan kepatuhan buta terhadap semua masalah kehidupan. Ini menyebabkan nilai-nilai yang terkandung dalam konsep-konsep tersebut menjadi berkurang dan kehilangan semangat pembebasan bagi kehidupan umat manusia. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan hermeneutika pembebasan dan analisis sosiologis, penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa konsep nerimo dalam Muslim Jawa sebenarnya dapat direkonstruksi menjadi gagasan Jawa yang menyiratkan ketahanan manusia dalam setiap periode kehidupan. Konsep nerimo dan kesabaran secara bergantian adalah bentuk kesadaran psikologis, spiritual, dan intelektual bahwa setiap kehidupan memiliki gerakan periodik di mana setiap orang pasti akan mengalami fluktuasi kehidupan. Maka prinsip kesabaran dan nerimo menjadi katalisator bagi posisi hidup untuk mengubahnya kembali menjadi gerak. Kesabaran dan nerimo, oleh karena itu, tidak ditempatkan sebagai hasil tetapi ditempatkan sebagai kekuatan dari proses kehidupan berkelanjutan yang mampu mendorong orang melampaui satu tahap kehidupan mereka.


Keywords


Patience; Nerimo; Javanese Muslim; Philosophy of Javanese culture

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abd Bâqi, Muhammad Fu’ad. Mu’jam Al-Mufahras li Al-Fadzi Al-Quran Al-Karim. Kairo: Darul Hadist, 1364 H.

Afsaruddin, Asma. Striving in the Path of God: Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought. Oxford; Oxford University Press, 2013.

Al-Isfahani, Al-Raghib. Al-Mufradat fi Gharib Al-Qur’an. Beirut: Dar Al-Ma’rifah, tth.

Aman. Indonesia: dari Kolonialisme sampai Nasionalisme. Yogyakarta: Pujangga Press, 2014.

El-Aswad, El-Sayed. “Patience in Sunni Muslim Worldviews” in David A. Leeming. Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion. Boston: Springer Science and Business Media, 2014: 1318-1321.

Endraswara, Suwardi. Kebatinan Jawa; Laku Hidup Utama Meraih Derajat Sempurna. Yogyakarta: Lembu Jawa, 2011.

Endraswara, Suwardi. Revolusi Mental dalam Budaya Jawa. Yoyakarta: Narasi, 2015.

Esack, Farid. Qur'an, Liberation, and Pluralism; An Islamic Perspective of Interreligious Solidarity against Oppression. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 1997.

Faris, Ibnu. Mu’jam Maqayis al-Lughah. Tahqiq, Muhammad Harun. Beirut: Dar Al-Fikr, 1979.

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973.

Geertz, Clifford. The Religion of Java. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.

Hamdy, Sherine F. “Islam, Fatalism, and Medical Intervention: Lessons from Egypt on the Cultivation of Forbearance (Sabr) and Reliance on God (Tawakkul)”, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 82, No. 1, (Winter, 2009), 173-196.

Hasan, Hamka. “The Meaning of Patience in the al-Quran: Thematic Study of Verse al-Baqarah”, Jurnal Bimas Islam, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2013): 213-233.

Headley, Stephen Cavana, Durga's mosque: cosmology, conversion and community in central Javanese Islam, Singapore: ISEAS (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies) E-Book, 2004.

Izutsu, Toshihiko. Ethical-Religious Concepts in the Qur'an. Quebec: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002.

Keeler, Ward. “Style and Authority in Javanese Muslim Sermons”, The Australian Journal of Anthropology, Sydney Vol. 9, Iss. 2, (Aug 1, 1998), 163-178.

Koentjaraningrat. Kebudayaan Jawa. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 1994.

Koentjaraningrat. Kebudayaan, Mentalitas dan Pembangunan. Jakarta: Gramedi Pustaka Utama, 2002.

Krismawati, Yeni. “Falsafah “Nrimo” dalam Budaya Jawa Ditinjau dari Tugas Pendidikan Kristen Berdasarkan Perspektif Psikologis”, Kurios, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013): 22-34.

Kurnianto, Ery Agus. “Refleksi Falsafah Ajaran Hidup Masyarakat Jawa dalam Prosa Lirik Pengakuan Pariyem Karya Linus Suryadi”, Madah, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2015): 31-42.

Maharani, Rizki. “Penerapan Falsafah Narimo Ing Pandum dalam Pendekatan Person-Centered untuk Mengatasi Depresi Remaja”, Prosiding SNBK (Seminar Nasional Bimbingan dan Konseling), Vol. 2, No. 1 (2018): 205–212.

Manzur, Ibnu. Lisan al-Arab. Tahqiq, Muhammad Syadhali. Beirut: Dar-Al-Ma’arif, 1119 H.

Mulder, Niels. Mysticism & Everyday Life in Contemporary Java: Cultural Persistence and Change. Minnesota: Singapore University Press, 1983.

Mulder, Niels. Mysticism in Java: Ideology in Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2005.

Pour, A.R. Mehdi and Mongasthi, N. “Education of Patience in the Social Relations in the Qur’an”, Walia Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1 (2014): 335-338.

Pranowo, Bambang. Memahami Islam Jawa. Jakarta: Pustaka Alvabet, 2011.

Prasetyo, Noor Hanafi and Subandi, M.A. “Narimo Ing Pandum Intervention Program to Enhance Psychological Well-Being of Family Caregiver of Schizophrenic Patient”, Jurnal Intervensi Psikologi, Vol. 6, No. 2 (2014): 151-170.

Prayekti. “Konseptualisme dan Validasi Instrumen Narimo Ing Pandum (Studi pada SMK Jetis Perguruan Tamansiswa Yogyakarta)”, Jurnal Bisnis Teori dan Implementasi, Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019): 31-39.

Pujileksono, Sugeng. Pengantar Antropologi: Memahami Realitas Sosial Budaya. Malang: Intrans Publishing, 2016.

Purwadi. History of Java; Local Wisdom Description Since Ancient Mataram to Contemporary Era. Yogyakarta: Tanah Air, 2007.

Raffles, Thomas Stamford. The History of Java. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Ridwan, MK and Kuswaya, Adang. “Agama; Antara Cita dan Kritik”, Fikrah, Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016): 154-170.

Saeed, Abdullah. Interpreting the Qur’an: Toward a Contemporary Approach. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Saptoto, Ridwan. “Psychological Dynamics of Nerimo at Work: Nerimo as Motivator or Demotivator?”, Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, Vol. 6, No. 2 (2009): 131-137.

Schnitker, Sarah A. “An Examination of Patience and Well-Being”, The Journal of Positive Psychology, Vol. 7, No. 4 (2012): 263-280.

Schnitker, Sarah A. and Emmons, Robert A. “Patience as a Virtue: Religious and Psychological Perspectives”, Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 18. Leiden: Brill, 2007: 177-208.

Shihab, M. Quraish, (ed.). Ensiklopedi Al-Qur’an: Kajian Kosakata dan Tafsirnya. Ciputat: Letera Hati, 2007.

Sukino. “The Concept of Patient in al-Quran and Contextualize in Purpose Human Life Through Education”, Ruhama, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2018): 63-77.

Suratno, Pardi and Astiyanto, Henniy. Gusti Ora Sare: 65 Mutiara Nilai Kearifan Budaya Jawa. Yoyakarta: Adiwacana, 2004.

Triaseptiana, Adinda Nurul and Herdiana, Ika. “Gambaran Kesehatan Mental Narapidana Bersuku Jawa Ditinjau dari Konsep Nrimo”, Jurnal Psikologi Kepribadian dan Sosial, Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013): 1-6.

Uyun, Qurotul and Witruk, Evelin. “The Effectiveness of Sabr (Patience) and Salat (Prayer) in Reducing Psychopathological Symptoms after the 2010 Merapi Eruption in the Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia”, Conference: The 5th International Congress on Interdisciplinary Behavior and Social Science, 2017: 165-173.

Woodward, Mark R. “Javanism, Islam and the plurality of ethnography”, Anthropological Forum, vol. 6, no. 3, (1991), 339-363.

Woodward, Mark R. Islam Jawa: Kesalehan Normatif Versus Kebatinan, Yogyakarta: LKiS, 1999.

Woodward, Mark R. Java, Indonesia, and Islam. New York: Springer, 2011.

Wulandari, Nisa A’rafiyah Tri. “Filosofi Jawa Nrimo Ditinjau dari Sila Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa”, JIPPK, Vol. 2, No. 2 (2017): 132-138.

Yusuf, M., and Ibala, Dona Kahfi, MA, and Chaer, Moh. Toriqul. “Sabar dalam Perspektif Islam dan Barat”, Al-Murabbi, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018): 233-246.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v10i1.153-176

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies indexed by: