Islamism and nationalism among niqabis women in Egypt and Indonesia

Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin

Abstract


The phenomenon of the increasing number of niqabis in Indonesia and Egypt has become concern to the government, academics and also civil society. This is due to the involvement of the niqabis or women with the niqab in terrorist networks. The piece of clothing covering the face is not merely a manifestation of faith but it apparently entails a certain ideological doctrine of the so-called Islam kaffah (ultimate Islam) through the establishemnt of Islamic khilafah (Islamic caliphate) as opposed to democracy and modern state. This study aims at observing the extent to which the niqabis negotiate Islam and their nationalism in their respective countries in Indonesia and Egypt where Muslims constitute the majority of the population. This study employed a mix of methods, qualitative and quantitative, involving 205 Niqabis from Indonesia and 87 niqabis from Egypt. The quantitative data were obtained from 292 respondents, while the qualitiative data were collected from 27 niqabis using in-depth interviews through life story technique—6 Egyptians and 21 Indonesians. A number of 12 prominent figures in Egypt and Indonesia were interviewed and two focus group discussions were conducted in both countries involving women activists, academics, government employees, and religious leaders. The framework of this study is the contestation between Islamism and nationalism. This study indicated that there is a significant difference between the niqabis of Indonesia and Egypt in terms of their perception of national pride. Around 30 percent of Indonesian niqabis are not proud of being Indonesian citizens while in Egypt only about 3 percent. Bank interest is used to measure their Islamic refinement through which Niqabis in both countries share a similar view, where almost 90% of them believe that the practice is not Islamic. Moreover, more than 50% support the Caliphate system, which means that one in four niqabis considers that the existing government is thoghut (non Islamic) and nearly 15% agree to defend Islam by means of violence.

Fenomena berkembangnya niqabis di Indonesia dan Mesir menjadi perhatian seksama pemerintah, akademisi dan juga masyarakat sipil. Hal ini disebabkan keterlibatan perempuan dalam jaringan teroris yang umumnya menggunakan niqab, sehingga diduga bahwa selembar kain penutup wajah ini tidak semata simbul ketaqwaan tetapi ada bagian dari doktrin ideologi yang melawan sistem yang ada. Pada umumnya, ideologi ini bermaksud mendirikan sistem caliphate yang dilawankan dengan demokrasi dan bentuk negara republik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejauhmana tingkat Islamisme dan nasionalisme para niqabis di Indonesia dan Mesir, sebagai negara dengan mayoritas Muslim. Penelitian ini menggunakan mix-methode, kualitatif dan kuantitatif yang melibatkan 205 Niqabis dari Indonesia dan 87 niqabis dari Mesir. Data kuantitatif diperoleh dari 209 responden melalui kuesioner sedangkan data kualitatif diperoleh melalui wawancara mendalam dengan teknis kisah hidup sebanyak 27, 6 Niqabis Mesir dan 21 Niqabis Indonesia. Disamping itu, dilakukan wawancara dengan 12 tokoh dan dilaksanakan dua diskusi terfokus dengan politisi, aktivis perempuan, akademisi, pegawai pemerintah, dan pemimpin agama. Penelitian ini menggunakan kerangka kerja kontestasi Islamisme dan nasionalisme yang menunjukan hasil sebagai berikut: ada perbedaan signifikan antara niqabis kedua negara pada aspek kebanggaan sebagai warga negara. Hampir 30 persen niqabis Indonesia tidak bangga menjadi WNI sedangkan di Mesir hanya sekitar 3 persen. Jasa Bank digunakan untuk mengukur kehidupan Islami yang menunjukkan kecenderungan sama, meski dengan prosentase yang sedikit berbeda, yaitu lebih dari 90% tidak setuju dengan bunga bank. Terkait dengan politik, lebih dari 50% setuju dengan sistem caliphate dan 1 dari 4 niqabis setuju bahwa pemerintah saat ini thoghut dan sekitar 15 orang setuju menggunakan kekerasan dalam membela negara.


Keywords


Niqabis; Islamism; Nationalism; Caliphate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amanda, Resti & Mardianto, “Hubungan Antara Prasangka Masyarakat Terhadap Muslimah Bercadar Dengan Jarak Sosial”, Jurnal RAP UNP, Volume 5, Number 1, 2014, 72–81.

Al Shafty, H. Hamdallah. interview, 1 Oct 2018.

Bouras, Naima. 2017. “From Salafi Preaching to Political Preaching: Women’s Turnout and the Evolution of Salafi Movements in Egypt”, Volume 9, Number 1, 2017, 30–45.

Brenner, Susan. “Reconstituting Self and Society: Javanese Muslim Women and The Veil, American Ethnologist, Volume 4, Number 23, 1996, 673–97.

Cahyaningrum, R. Dwi & Dinie Ratri Desiningrum, “Jiwa-Jiwa Tenang Bertabir Iman: Studi Fenomenologi Pada Mahasiswi Bercadar di Universitas Negeri Umum Kota Yogyakarta”, Jurnal Empati, Volume 7, Number 3, 2017, 278–96.

Callimachi, Rukmini. For Women Under ISIS, a Tyranny of Dress Code and Punishment, Desember 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/12/world/middleeast/islamic-state-mosul-women-dress-code-morality.html.

Chandraningrum, Dewi. Negotiating Women’s Veiling, Politic & Sexulaity in Contemporary Indonesia, French: RASEC, 2013.

DeGregorio, Christina. “Islamism in Politics: Integration and Persecution in Egypt”, Al Ja-mi‘ah, Volume 48, Number 2, 2010, 343–64.

Emam, Amr. Battle of the niqab moves to Egypt: Lawmakers are seeking to link a ban to security concerns, not wider political or social issues, 2018, https://thearabweekly.com/battle-niqab-moves-egypt.

E, McLarney. "The burqa in Vogue: Fashioning Afghanistan”, Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, Volume 5, Number 1, 2009, 1–23.

Gouveia, Lexandra. 10 Countries Where Women Are Forbidden To Wear The Veil, Jul 2017, https://emirateswoman.com/10-countries-women-forbidden-wear-veil/.

Hamid, A. Muhammad. interview, 5 Nov 2018.

Hasan, Noorhaidi. Laskar Jihad: Islam, Militancy, and the Quest for Identity in Post-New Order Indonesia, New York: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, 2006.

Ichwan, N. Moch. Islamisme, Pos-Islamisme, dan Reposisi Islam Mainstream: Sebuah Pendahuluan, in Islamisme dan Pos-Islamisme: Dalam Dinamika Politik Indonesia Kontemporer, ed. by Moch Nur Ichwan and Muhammad Wildan, Yogyakarta: SUKA-Press-CISForm UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, 2019.

Inger, Furseth. From Quest for Truth to Being Oneself, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2006.

Jayawardena, Kumari, Feminism and Nationalism in The Third World: In The 19th and Early 20th Centuries, The Hague. Netherlands: Institute of Social Studies, 1982.

Jumirin, interview, 17 Nov 2018.

Karim, Syahrir. “Islamism: Expression of Political Islam and Islamic Politics in South Sulawesi”, JICSA, Volume 05, Number 02, 2016, 121–35.

Kementrian Agama RI, Terjemahan Al Qur’an Surat Al Ahzab ayat 59, 2019, https://quran.kemenag.go.id/.

Knutilla, “Lean and Mean: Hegemonic Masculinity as Fundamentalism”, in Contesting Fundamentalism, ed. by J. Jaffe, & A. M. Watkinson Eds C. Schick. Nova Scotia:, Fernwood Publishing, 2004.

Kaddor, Lamya. “Kenapa Saya Sebagai Perempuan Muslim Tidak Berjilbab”, Deutsche Welle, 2018, https://www.dw.com/id/kenapa-saya-sebagai-perempuan-muslim-tidak-berjilbab/a-43418026.

Larrain, Jorge. The Concept of Ideology. London: Hutchinson Publication, 1979.

Mahmood, Saba. Politic of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Islamic Subject, The United Kingdom: Princeton University Press: Princeton University Press, 1962.

Maye, interview, 29 Oct 2018.

Miles, Matthew B., A.M. Huberman, and Johnny Saldaña, Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook, 2014.

Muhsin, Mukhtar. interview, 4 Nov 2018.

Mianoki, Adika. Siapakah Thaghut?, 2013, https://muslim.or.id/11364-siapakah-thaghut.html.

Naim, an Abdullahi. Negotiating the Future of Sharia, Islam and the Secular State. USA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Najib, Ainun. Larangan Bercadar di UIN Yogyakarta Menuai Protes, SindoNews. Com, http//derah.sindonews.com, downloaded 12 December 2018.

Nisa, Eva. “Embodied Faith: Agency and Obedience among Face-veiled University Students in Indonesia.” 13 (4): 372., The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, Volume 13, Number 4, 2012, 366–81.

Parekh, B., A New Politic of Identity: Political Principles for an Interdependent World, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Qibtiyah, Alimatul. Hijab in Indonesia: The History and Controversies. The Conversation, 2019, The Conversation http://theconversation.com.

Ratri, Lintang. “Cadar, Media, dan Identitas Perempuan Muslim, Jurnal FORUM Universitas Diponegoro, Volume 39, Number 2, 2011, 29–37.

Roy, Oliver. Islam: A Passage to the West: Globalized Islam: The Search for A New Ummah, London: Hurst and Company, 2002.

----, Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah, Columbia: University Press, 2004.

Rozaki, Abdur. interview, Oktober 2018.

Sabain, interview, 17 Nov 2018.

Schmid, P. Alex. “Moderate Muslims and Islamist Terrorism: Between Denial and Resistance”, The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism-The Hague, Volume 8, Number 9, 2017 [http://dx.doi.org/10.19165/2017.1.09].

Siddharta, Amanda. Mengapa Niqab (Makin) Banyak Digunakan oleh Wanita Muslim di Indonesia, 20 Feb 2018, https://www.matamatapolitik.com/mengapa-niqab-banyak-digunakan-oleh-wanita-muslim-di-indonesia/.

Syazwani, Atikah. Hijab, Burqa dan Niqab, Apr 2016.

Shihab, Quraish. Wawasan al-Qur’an: Tafsir Mawdhu’i atas Berbagai Persoalan Umat, Bandung: Mizan, 1996.

----, Tafsir Al-Misbah: Pesan, Kesan dan Keserasian al-Qur’an, Jakarta: Lentera Hati, cet 6, Jilid 5 dan 9, 2006.

Sudrajat, Jilbab di Indonesia, Antara Pelarangan dan Perjuangan, 7 Mar 2018, https://news.detik.com/berita/d-3903674/jilbab-di-indonesia-antara-pelarangan-dan-perjuangan.

Tibi Bassam, Islamism and Islam. New Haven:, Yale University Press., 2012.

UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakartaa, Tata Tertib Mahasiswa, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, 2018.

Wardatun, Atun. interview, 17 Nov 2018.

Wijaya, Indra. "Bagaimana ISIS Masuk Indonesia?”, tempo.co, 2014, https://nasional.tempo.co/read/596975/bagaimana-isis-masuk-indonesia/full&view=ok.

Wildan, Muhammad., dkk, Menanam Benih di Ladang Tandus:Potret Sistem Produksi Guru Agama Islam di Indonesia, Yogyakarta: CISForm UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, 2019.

Zia, interview, 22 Nov 2018.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v10i1.49-77

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies indexed by: