Muslim localizing democracy:a non-pesantren village in Madura as a preliminary study

Muhammad Endy Saputro

Abstract


The political dynamic of village in Indonesian New Order has two faces. On one
hand, it is conditioned by the feudalism of village’s leader which is monopolized
from one generation to other generations. On the other hand, religion can be an
alternative to challenge this feudalism. I explore this condition through an examination
of the role of kalebun (the village’s leader) and kiai in a non-pesantren
village in Madura, Indonesia. In Madura society, kiai and its pesantren take important
role in the process of Islamic institutionalization. Yet, in this case, the
absence of pesantren enforces the kiai to be counter-balance of the feudalism of
the kalebun. And, the kiai claims that this counter-balance is on behalf of democracy.
This article concludes with a discussion of the requirement of democracy in “Islamic” local politics as well as in search of good local governance in post
Indonesian New Order.
Dinamika politik desa pada masa Orde Baru menghadapi dua realitas antagonis.
Di satu sisi, pemerintahan desa dimonopoli oleh generasi tertentu yang melahirkan
rezim feodal. Seorang Muslim, di lain sisi, berpotensi menjadi elan vital perlawanan
terhadap feodalisme tersebut. Tulisan ini berupaya menggali dua kenyataan
tersebut melalui analisis kepemimpinan kalebun (kepala desa) dan kiai di sebuah
desa non-pesantren di Madura, Indonesia. Pada jamaknya, dalam masyarakat
Madura, kiai dan pesantren memiliki peranan penting dalam proses
institusionalisasi Islam. Namun, dalam studi ini, ketiadaan pesantren, membuat
kiai (dengan langgarnya) berusaha membendung arus feudalisme kalebun. Sebuah
temuan menarik bahwa perlawanan sang kiai tidak atas nama Islam, tetapi demi
tegaknya demokratisasi di desa.

Keywords


Madura; Non-Pesantren; Democracy; Kiai; Kalebun

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v1i2.297-316

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