Educational practice: lessons to be learned from madrasah and religious schools in contemporary Southeast Asia

Kamaruzzaman Bustamam Ahmad

Abstract


This article aims at examining the current portrait of Islamic education in
Southeast Asia. Recently, there have been many studies on the role of madrasahs
or religious schools in Islamic education. As Muslim who studies social-anthropology,
I would like to approach this issue by examining socio-cultural of
Islamic education in Southeast Asia. Historically, the tradition has been based
on Muslim society at grass root level. The word of madrasah in Southeast Asia
has long history, which called as dayah in Aceh, surau in Minangkabau, pesantren
in Java, pondok in Malaysia, and pho no in Southern Thailand. The role of
madrasah, then has similarities with the tradition of pesantren, even in some
Muslim countries like Indonesia scholars still can differentiate between pesantren
and madrasah. In this study, I examine to philosophical dimension and system
of knowledge reproduction in Islamic education. Finally, I argue that
pesantren or religious school is embedded in Muslim culture.
Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan keadaan terkini mengenai pendidikan
Islam di Asia Tenggara.Sejauh ini, sudah begitu banyak kajian mengenai madrasah atau pendidikan agama di dalam pendidikan Islam. Sebagai seorang
Muslim yang menekuni kajian sosial-antropologi, saya ingin mendekati studi
ini denganmemaparkansosio-kultural pendidikan Islam di Asia Tenggara.
Menurut sejarah, tradisi pendidikan tersebut sudah menggejala dalam
masyarakat Muslim pada level akarrumput.Istilah madrasah di Asia Tenggara
sudah mengalami perkembangan yang amat pesat, di mana kalau di Aceh dikenal
dengan istilah dayah, di Minangkabau dikenal dengan istilah surau, sementara
di Jawa digunakan istilah pesantren, di Malaysia memakai istilah pondok, di
Thailand Selatan digunakan istilah pho no. Peran madrasah, hamper sama dengan
tradisi pesantren, kendati di beberapa negara, seperti Indonesia, para sarjana
masih membedakan antara pesantren dan madrasah. Dalam kajian ini, dikupas
tentang dimensi filosofis dan system reproduksi pengetahuan dalam pendidikan
Islam. Akhirnya, saya berargumen bahwa pesantren dan pendidikan agama
merupakan bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dalam budaya Muslim.

Keywords


Islamic education; Pesantren; System of Islamic knowledge; Guardian of society; Reproduction of knowledge

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v5i1.29-48

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